The viability of a personal injury lawsuit can sometimes hinge on the testimony of witnesses. Witnesses can provide essential information about an injury and related matters, such as the extent of the plaintiff’s damages. Some witnesses are willing to provide testimony and information without being compelled to do so. But others may be reluctant. Perhaps the witness is a friend of the defendant’s and doesn’t want to testify to facts that will help the plaintiff. Or perhaps the witness is an employee of a company that is being sued and wants to protect a career. In many cases such witnesses can be required to testify through the use of subpoenas.
What is a subpoena?
The subpoena power is a significant resource that only becomes available once a lawsuit has been filed. Its purpose is to give the parties to litigation a means to gather evidence related to the case even against the objection of individuals who have it. Subpoenas may demand testimony (a subpoena ad testificandum) or production of documents or other materials (a subpoena duces tecum). A court may charge someone with contempt if they fail to comply with a valid subpoena. Under Nevada law contempt is punishable by a fine of up to $500, imprisonment for up to 25 days, or both, as well as reimbursement of legal fees and other expenses of the party that originally sought the subpoena.
The mechanics of subpoenas in Nevada state civil courts are governed by Rule 45 of the Nevada Rules of Civil Procedure. To be valid a subpoena must comply with all of the requirements of Rule 45 and other related rules. A subpoena must be served upon the party being compelled to appear. Service must be in person and, with a few exceptions, must be accompanied by compensation for the witness’s mileage and a day’s fees.
Can someone avoid a subpoena?
There are a few ways someone can avoid responding to a subpoena. Many of the exceptions relate to the validity of the subpoena itself:
- Avoiding service of process. One reason people hire professionals to serve process is that some people take pains to avoid it, thereby frustrating efforts to make the subpoena valid and binding. Process servers use creative methods to deliver documents to people who try to hide from service.
- Undue burden. A respondent is not required to comply with a subpoena that creates an undue burden. This abstract concept is evaluated on a case-by-case basis, but might include things like interrupting necessary medical care. An attorney who issues and serves a subpoena that creates an undue burden or unreasonable expense upon the person being served can be subject to sanction by the court.
- Reasonable time. The subpoena must allow the respondent a reasonable time to appear.
- Reasonable place. A subpoena cannot order someone to travel more than 100 miles from the respondent’s home or business, unless it is to the place where the trial is held.
- Protected information. Subpoenas may be quashed or modified if they require someone to disclose trade secrets, confidential business information, or compels an opinion by an expert who has not been retained by a party as a paid witness.
Experienced personal injury attorneys are used to using subpoenas to gather information that pertains to their cases. For more than 45 years the law firm of Greenman Goldberg Raby Martinez has represented Las Vegas clients in personal injury cases. For a free attorney consultation about your case call 702-388-4476 or send us a request through our site.